The cycle of skill & knowledge (s/k) in the learning process

I’m just wondering, as a teacher, my function is to make sure my student achieves my expectations, a learning objective. Still, at the same time, I also think that my student also has their expectation, the course learning outcome. Both terms of learning objective and course learning outcome seems to have the same criteria, but it belongs to a different audience. After readings on the meaning of the terms, I summarize the Learning Objective (LO) and Course Learning Outcome (CLO) as below:

LO = Educator’s Expectation (EE) +  CLO = Student’s Expectation (SE) = Perfomance?

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Figure 1. Cycle of skill & knowledge (s/k) in the learning process

I imagine that if the educator/teacher and student have fulfilled their expectation, my assumption the outcome of the instructional strategy is:

1. It will benefit the student’s well being, to be able to survive in the actual life.
2. It will enrich the experiences to both educators and students in terms of construction of knowledge
3. It will benefit society in building a better living standard.

In the operational side of the formula , the involvement of facilitator (EE) and the student in their engagement in the learning process is crucial. Due to this scenario, I think the core of teaching and learning is the instructional strategy (IS). I simply include IS due to its relation to a possible underlying theory, such as Information Processing, Piaget’s Constructivism, Vygotsky’s Constructivism, Situated Cognition, Social Constructivism, Connectivism etc. Both LO and CLO should come hand-in-hand to create an understanding between educators and the learners.

Figure 1 shows the cycle of the Skill and Knowledge(S/K) that moves from the LOs to the CLOs, intervened by the Instructional Strategy (IS) LO represent ‘teacher’ whom we refer as a communicant (or creator) and CLO represents the learner relating to the recipient. The development of LO and CLO by the teacher needs to consider the learner’s expectation. The mental model of the learner should match the mental model of the educators, that will lead achievement of the LOs and the CLOs.  Perhaps the ideas on “how are ideas transmitted?” by Sherman and Craig (2003) can be use to illustrate the mental model of both facilitator and student.

The communication process begins when, somehow, a person conjures up and idea. An idea may be private or one may intend to pass on an idea to others. For the purpose of clarity, we will refer to the communicant (or creator) and recipient (or participant) of a mental model as if they were separate individuals, even though this may no always be the case (Sherman & Craig , 2003 p, 43)

Note: From “Figure 2-2 Communicant’s Mental Model and Recipients Mental model,” by Sherman & Craig, 2003, Understanding Virtual Reality. Interface, Application and Design.SanFrancisco, CA: Morgan Kaufmann Publishers  p. 44

So, if LO (teacher’s expectation) followed by the CLO (student’s expectation), will it lead to a meaningful learning outcome that reflects the student’s performance? Have I not yet had the answer to the formula.
Screenshot 2019-10-24 at 2.45.16 PMPerhaps you have the answer?  🙂 More study on the IS should be done to determine the factors that can support the formula above.This article intends to triggers curiosity on the ideas beyond the LO and CLO on its function to create an effective instructional strategy. You might disagree on most of the statement or justification. Your constructive comments and suggestion are most welcome.


UCLA Health (2016)Learning Outcome vs. Learning Objective. Retrieved From, L., Grunberg, L., &

Parlea, D. (2007). Quality assurance and accreditation: A glossary of basic terms and definitions. Bucharest: UNESCO. Retrieved From

Sherman, R.W. & Craig, A.B. (2003). Understanding Virtual Reality. Interface, Application and Design. SanFrancisco, CA: Morgan Kaufmann Publishers

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Figure 1:Cycle of skill & knowledge (s/k) in the learning process  by Zahari Hamidon is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.

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