What is the definition of learning at this stage? A different definition of learning by early scholars can be found in most of the learning theories. The theory keeps on evolving due to the progress of technology and the needs of the industry. I may say that technology gives impact to industry and both technology and industry give effect to the teaching and learning. If we go deeply into a micro level such as in the classroom environment that also has evolved from brick and wall to virtual environment, we will find that the learners are fully independent and flexible in their learning preferences.

So what is the best strategy? Perhaps the best is outcomes-based learning (OBL). Why OBL?   Before we go deeper into OBL, lets us look into the essential component; the learning organization. Senge (2006 as cited by Ludvik, 2019 p. 2) stated that “learning organizations are where people continually expand their capacity to create the result they truly desire.” Some important points need to be considered before embarking the OBL are:

1. “Learning organizations are where people continually expand their capacity to create the result they truly desire” (Senge, 2006 as cited by Ludvik, 2019 p. 2)2. Time must be allocated for the meaningful and useful inquiry to occur
3. Provide evidence that it is a learning organization in carrying out high-quality students learning and development to all enrolled student
4. Processes to ensure high-quality systematic inquiry.
5. A good practice is ‘not only a practice that is good but a practice that has been proven to work well and produce good results.
(Ludvik, 2019 p. 15)

Generally, based on the points above, there are several ways to make it happens. First, consider the Student Learning Outcomes (SLO) and General Learning Outcomes (GLO)  (Carriveau, 2016), and second, I would like to recommend the Carrol Model of School, (1963, 1989) as part and partial of the whole system in OBL. I imagine that by combining both ideas, we can create a workable framework.

If you disagree with the points above, you might have different ideas, your comments and suggestion are most welcome. See you in my next article in formulating a workable framework for OBL.


Reference

Carriveau, R.S. (2016). Connecting the Dots Developing Student Learning Outcomes and Outcomes-based Assesement. Sterling, Virginia: Stylus Publishing Inc.

Edutech Wiki (2014). Carroll model of school learning. Retrieved From http://edutechwiki.unige.ch/en/Carroll_model_of_school_learning

Ludvik, M. J. B. (2019). Outcome-based Program Review. Sterling, Virginia: Stylus Publishing Inc.

By Tipping Mind

Dr Zahari Hamidon is currently an Associate Professor at Cluster of Education and Social Sciences | Learning Technology at Open University Malaysia. He is a Head of Centre for Learning Technology and a Program Director for Master of Instructional Design and Technology (MIDT), Open University Malaysia

Leave a Reply